2 thoughts on “Knowledge of public relations”

  1. Public relations, also known as institutional messages, (English: public related, so mostly referred to as PR or public relations) are mainly engaged in the management functions of organization information dissemination, relationship coordination and image management affairs. Including the success of the selection organization, the impact of reducing the failure of the organization, the announcement of changes, and so on. Similar to the face of traditional Chinese personal relationships. [1]

    In in the marketing system, public relations relations are the only tool for corporate institutions to establish public trust.

    It's division of labor in society is getting more and more detailed, and the importance of public relations personnel has increased, and many colleges and universities have set up public relations departments to cultivate public relations talents in different fields for society.

    The nature of the public relations industry makes it inevitably closely related to the media. At present, companies in the public relations industry in mainland China should be close to customer groups and media, so they are mainly distributed in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou, and cities such as Chengdu and Wuhan are also distributed.

  2. The term "public relations" is translated by the English "Public Relations". Chinese can be translated as "public relations" or "public relations". Refers to the communication and communication between the organization and the public environment.
    The definition of public relations is many. In summary of various definitions, we define the next definition of public relations: Public relations are a social organization using communication methods to form two -way communication between ourselves and the public, so that the two parties can achieve mutual understanding and adaptive management activities. This definition reflects that public relations are a communication activity and a management function.
    The public relationship refers to a series of promotional activities for a certain organization to improve the relationship between the public, understand and support the public's understanding, understand and support, and achieve the purpose of establishing a good organizational image and promoting commodity sales. Essence It means that social organizations, collectives or individuals must establish a good relationship with various internal and external public around them. It is a state, and any business or individual is in a state of public relations. It is another activity. When an industrial and commercial enterprise or individual consciously and consciously take measures to improve and maintain its own public relationship, it is engaged in public relations activities. As part of the long -term development strategic combination of public relations, the meaning of public relations refers to this management function: evaluate the attitude of the public, confirm the policies and procedures of individuals or organizations consistent with the public interest, and formulate and implement various action plans Increase the popularity and reputation of the subject, improve the image, and strive for the understanding and acceptance of the relevant public.
    . The meaning of public relations
    The term "public relations" is imported. Its English is Public Relations, abbreviated as PR, referred to as public relations. "Public Relations" can also be translated as "public relations", but this "public relationship" can be understood as both "relationships with the public" or "public relationship". For a social organization, the former is unidirectional, and the latter is irrelevant. Therefore, translation as "public relations" is more likely to be accurately understood by people. The reason is:
    . The "public" of public relations is not only composed of the crowd, but also includes government, communities, media and other institutions. Because the government, communities, media and other institutions are public institutions in the minds of Chinese people, translated as "public relations", which is more likely to be accepted by people.
    . Most of the Chinese writings in Hong Kong, Taiwan and other places are such translations and have become mainstream translations.
    3. The term "public" corresponds to the term "private", which accurately expresses the different essence of "public relations" and "private relations". For the definition of public relations, it can be said that there are many public relations works, and how many public relations are defined. It can be seen through the list of several public relations definitions that although public relations have been used as a professional activity, it has a history of nearly a century; as a science, it has a history of nearly 80 years, but it is difficult for people to find today. A scientific definition that can be recognized by everyone. This at least shows that public relations, as an emerging science, are still in the "young" era of development. But from the different definition of public relations, it is not difficult to find some of the convergence. These converges are mainly manifested in the following aspects:
    (1) Public relations are the relationship between an organization and its public. This relationship is formed by an organization in interaction and interaction with the public.
    (2) Public relations are a special thought and activity. As a kind of thought, it penetrates all the activities of an organization; as an activity, it has the special and special requirements of other activities that is different from the organization.
    (3) Public relations are the independent functions of modern organization management. The main task of public relations is to coordinate the relationship between the organization and the public, so that the organization meets the requirements of the public, and the public is conducive to the growth and development of the organization.
    (4) Information communication and communication is a special means of public relations. Public relations are used to coordinate the main means of organization and the public is information communication and dissemination.
    S summary of the above content. We give a simple definition of public relations: that is, an organization uses effective means of communication to make itself the public's needs and make the public also meet the needs of the development needs of the organization.
    . The term "public relations" is versatile
    The public relations have several layers of meanings. At present, a world -recognized view is not yet reached. It is generally believed that it can be both a state, a activity, a doctrine, and a kind of idea and profession.
    1. Any organization is in a certain state of public relations, which is an objective form.
    . The organizational public relations activities are a process of organizing long -term social exchanges, communication information, wide relationships, and establishing their own good image. It is manifested as two categories: daily public relations activities and special public relations activities.
    3. The concept of public relations affects and guide the value orientation of individual or organizational decision -making and behavior, thereby affecting people's public relations activities and indirectly affecting the actual public relationship state. The concepts of public relations are mainly: image concepts, public concepts, communication concepts, concepts of coordination, and mutual benefit. In addition, the concept of public relations also includes team concepts, innovation concepts, service concepts, social concepts, and so on.
    4. As far as the characteristics of the discipline are concerned, public relations are not only a very applied marginal discipline, but also theoretically a comprehensive and cross -disciplinary discipline. Communication, management, marketing, psychology, ethics, etc. are emerging disciplines established based on communication and management.
    5. Professional tasks of public relations are to coordinate the relationship between social organizations and the public, shape the good social image of the organization, and promote the continuous development and improvement of the organization. Public relations were born in 1903. People usually use American journalists Avi Lee Zun as "the father of modern public relations." In fact, the "public relations" here mainly refer to public relations. It is precisely because of the public relations work that Evil Lee began to establish an image for the organization in 1903, and founded a public relations consulting firm in the following year, and publicly operated publicly, which caused public relations in the society.
    . The characteristics of public relations
    Public relations are a manifestation of social relations. The scientific form of public relationship is different from any other relationship. It has its unique nature. Understanding these characteristics can help us help us Deepen the understanding of the concept of public relations.
    1. Emotional. Public relations are an art that creates a beautiful image. It emphasizes successful people and environment, harmonious personnel atmosphere, and best public opinion to win the understanding, trust, goodwill and cooperation of all sectors of society. The ancients of our country pay attention to the "time, place, people," as an important condition for the success of the cause. Public relations are to pursue the realm of "human harmony" and create the best soft environment for the survival, development or personal activities of the organization.
    . Two -way. Public relations are based on real two -way communication, rather than one -way public communication or investigation and monitoring of public opinion. It is a two -way information system between the subject and the public. On the one hand, the organization must absorb human opinion and public opinion to adjust decisions and improve itself; on the other hand, it is necessary to spread to the outside world, so that the public understands and understands themselves, and achieve effective two -way opinion communication.
    3. Broadly. The extensiveness of public relations contains two meanings: one layer means that public relations exist in any behavior and process of the subject, that is, public relations are everywhere, and the entire survival and development process runs through the subject; another The meaning of layers refers to its extensiveness of its public. Because the object of public relations can be any individual, group, and organization, it can be any public that has a relationship with the subject, or it can be any temporary person who is about or possible.
    4. Overall. The purpose of public relations is to enable the public to fully understand themselves, so as to build their own reputation and popularity. It focuses on the competitive position and overall image of an organization or individual in society, so that people have an overall understanding of themselves. It is not to simply convey information and promote its status and social prestige, but to make people know about themselves in all aspects.
    5. Long -term. The practice of public relations tells us that public relations cannot be regarded as "fire saving teams", but should be regarded as "standing forces". The management function of public relations should be regular and planned. This means that public relations are not faucets. If you want to open it, you can close it. It is a long -term work.
    . The basic elements of public relations
    The structure of public relations is composed of three elements: organization, public, and dissemination. The main body of public relations is social organizations, the object is the public, and the intermediary link between the main body and the object is information dissemination. These three elements constitute the basic category of public relations. The theoretical research and practical operations of public relations are all around the relationship between the three.
    1. Public relations subject -social organization. The main body of public relations is social organizations. Although some individuals, such as candidates, national civil servants, social celebrities, etc., are also held for some special interests. The identity appeared in the face of a legal person. Comprehensive research organization is a subject of sociology, and public relations mainly analyze the related nature of the organization from the perspective of public relations activities.
    The characteristics of social organizations are: group, guidance, systemic, collaborative, variableness, stability. People combined into the organization must be to achieve a certain common goal, but the way the goal existence is different, which determines that social organizations must have a variety of types: profitable organizations, non -profit organizations, mutually beneficial organizations, public welfare, and public welfare nature Organization and wait 2. Public relations object -public. Public relations are also called public relations, because the working object of public relations is the public. To do a good job of public relations, we must understand and study the public. In public relations, the public is different from "the public" and "the masses". It does not refer to everyone or most people in social life, nor does it refer to some people in a certain area in social life, but should be specifically called "the public of the organization". There must be interaction and interaction between the public and the organization. The characteristics of the public are: group, homogeneity, change, correlation. Common public classification methods are:
    (1) Classification according to the relationship between the public and the organization, the public can be divided into internal public and external public. Employees are the public that the organization is directly facing and closer to, the cells that the organization depends on survival and development, and the main body of the internal public of the organization. Generally speaking, among the organizers of the organization, consumer public, communication media, community public, and government public are particularly important to the development of the organization.
    (2) According to the sequential characteristics of the relationship between the public and the organization, the public can be divided into non -public, potential public, knowing the public, and the public.
    (3) According to the public's importance of the organization, the public can be divided into the primary public, marginal public, and secondary public.
    (4) According to the public's attitude towards the organization, it can be divided into the public, the public, and the independent public. For public relations staff, the public is the basis of the organization's basically dependent ones, the public public is an urgent need to transform the object, and the independent public is an object worthy of the organization.
    3. Public relations intermediary -spread. When the organization clarifies the goals of public relations, determines the target public, and has the idea of ​​public relations activities, it is necessary to consider how to use the media to turn the goals and ideas into action. The media is the bridge connecting social organizations and the public, a project to complete communication, and the only means to achieve the goal of public relations.
    (1) The meaning of spread. In this sense, propagation refers to the information process of interchangeing, conveying news, facts, opinions, and feelings between personal, group or group and individuals. This communication is two -way information communication and sharing. Between the subject and object of public relations, it has established mutual trust and mutual understanding of relationships through this two -way information exchange.
    (2) The element of spread. As an information exchange activity, there is a specific structure. It is a dynamic process composed of the following elements: source, residence, information symbols, and information channels.
    (3) The role of public relations communication media and communication activities.
    The public relations can be divided into two types: spontaneous communication and conscious communication. To this end, conscious communication must be effectively used for the media to improve the effect of communication. The communication media of public relations include both the mass media (radio, television, newspapers, magazines, etc.), as well as group media (association, press conference, tea party, etc.) and interpersonal media (specific individuals); existing symbol medium (applause applause , Gesture, pictures, etc.), there are also physical media (public relations gifts, symbols, shopping bags, etc.) and human media (social celebrities, news characters, public opinion leaders, etc.). Because it is conscious and planned to carry out various information dissemination activities, this conscious communication activity is much more efficient than spontaneous communication.
    . Public relations and publicity
    The connection between public relations and publicity is mainly manifested in: both in nature are a kind of communication process and have some common activities; Similarly, if each organization has internal members of unity, which enhances group cohesion, centripetal force, and honor, this is not only the content of the internal publicity work of the organization, but also the goal of organizing internal public relations. However, there is a difference between public relations and publicity. The difference is:
    1. The nature of the work is different. Traditional propaganda work belongs to the category of political ideological work and is a means and tools for political ideological work. The purpose of propaganda is to change and strengthen people's psychological and mental state, and obtain people's support for some claims or beliefs. Its main content is the education of national policies, policies, social ethics, ethics, and legal systems. Public relations, as a special management function, are the purpose of shaping the image of the organization and establishing a good relationship with the public. In addition to publicity and encouragement, the main content of its work is information exchanges, coordinated communication, decision -making consulting, and crisis treatment. 2. The working method is different. The propaganda work is a one -way communication process (organization → public), with instilling and compulsory; its purpose is sometimes hidden and is not known for the public; the focus of work is often controlled by organizational goals to control the public's psychology; Sometimes in order to obtain the support of the target object, the one -sided effect of exaggerated rendering is prone to exaggerated rendering. Public relations work is a two -way transmission process (organizational public); public relations must respect the facts, timely, accurate, and effective conveying organization information to the public with the public's understanding and trust in the organization with sincer In addition to persuasion work, the important function is to provide information and consultation to the organization's decision -making layers; its purpose and motivation are public, and the public should be able to understand and let the public know; Doing a good job, I also want to tell the public about the work you do.
    6. Public relations and advertising
    In general, most of the advertisements mentioned refer to commercial advertisements, that is, advertisers use various communication methods to expand sales and obtain profitability, and use various communication methods to go to the target by the goal. Economic activities for the general public to spread commodities or services. Carrying out public relations should undoubtedly use an important form of advertising, but advertisements are not equal to public relations. They are both connected and different. The connection is mainly due to the characteristics of communication information on communication media. Therefore, in a sense, advertising plays a role in expanding the influence of organizational and building a tree organization to varying degrees.
    The market activity based on a circus to perform in a small town as an example:
    If as a sign on the street, write "XXX Circus will be in X Yue X. Performance of the drama ", this is" advertising ".
    If you look for an elephant in the circus, put this brand on the back of the elephant and walk back and forth on the street. This is doing "promotion".
    If you let the elephant carrying a brand step into the garden in front of the town government, this is making "hype".
    If you can let the mayor's opinion on the incident of "Elephant Elephant Entering the Garden in front of the town government", this is to be "public relations".
    7. Public relations and marketing
    The relationship between public relations and marketing is close. But the difference between them is also obvious. Public relations work in enterprises, almost integrated with marketing. In other words, the public relations of the enterprise are almost completely serving the marketing activities. As British public relations expert Frank Jeffkins said, "Every factor in sales requires public relations personnel to strengthen and improve." Therefore, public relations can involve all corners of marketing. Their connection is mainly: common conditions for production -high development of commodity production; common guiding ideology -user first, social benefits first; similar communication medium -mass communication medium; marketing public relations Part 1. The difference between public relations and marketing: It is mainly manifested in:
    (1) different range. Marketing is limited to the production and circulation field of enterprises, at most it is only in the economic field, but public relations involve the relationship between any organization and the public in the society. In addition to enterprises, public relations also involve various organizations such as government, schools, and hospitals, far exceeding the economic field. Public relations are more widely social than marketing, and the scope of discipline is more widely used.
    (2) Different purposes. The direct purpose of marketing is to sell products, thereby further expanding profitability and generating corporate benefits; the purpose of public relations is to establish an organizational image and produce a good public reputation, so that the organization has achieved great development.
    (3) different means. The means of marketing are price, sales, advertising, packaging, trademarks, product design, distribution, etc. These methods are tightly around the purpose of product sales. The means of public relations are publicity materials and various special activities, such as reporters' enrollment, social sponsorship, ceremony ceremony, and crisis treatment.
    8. Public relations and vulgar relations
    On the surface, the coordination and communication between vulgar relations and public relations is consistent, and the purpose is to solve problems or obtain benefits. Therefore, some people think of such unfair vulgar relations as soon as they heard that public relations, and believe that public relations are taught people to spend their words and unhealthy. In fact, this is a great misunderstanding, often breaking the reputation of public relations. There is a essential difference between public relations and vulgar relations. It is mainly manifested in:
    . The foundation of the two is different. Public relations are products that are highly developed in the commodity economy, the modern democratic system is continuously developed, and the information methods are very advanced (see Chapter 2); the vulgar relations are under closed and backward economic conditions. The product with insufficient material supply has a strong blood and geographical colors.
    . The theoretical basis of the two is different. Public relations are guided by modern scientific theory, and according to the correct goals, scientific methods, standardized organizational forms, strict working procedures and moral guidelines; vulgar relations are based on the experience of city crickets. The method is sinister rights technique The creed of "people are not self, destroy the earth" 3. The movement of the two is different. Public relations are a legitimate connection between social organizations and the public. It is mainly through formal channels, adopting means of public dissemination or interpersonal communication, and publicly conducts activities. The activities are positive and bright. The vulgar relationship is an unfair connection between individuals and individuals, and a kind of improper activity used by privately. Its participants try to cover up what they do and carry out behind -the -scenes transactions, such as vulgar means such as pattering horses, colluding internal and external, fraudulent business fraud, bribery, bribery, etc. These activities cannot be publicly carried out in public, and they can only be secretly carried out secretly.
    4. The purpose of the two is different. Public relations aim at establishing a good organizational image, increasing popularity and reputation, maintaining the reasonable interests of the organization and the public, and adhere to the principles of justice, honesty, and reputation, so that the organization can obtain better social benefits and economic benefits; vulgar relations relationships; vulgar relations Through a variety of despicable means, the purpose of personal self -interest is achieved, such as making some tight products, buying some cheap goods, making a good job, getting bidding projects in the bidding, and so on. The former struggles for public interests, and the latter is just speculating for the personal interests of individuals. 5. The effects of the two are different. Public relations are a series of activities that have a series of activities to enable social organizations to continue to develop under the premise that the overall interests of the society are consistent. As a result, the organization, society, the country, and the public will benefit from it, creating a kind of seeing each other with sincerity. Paying good reputation and good reputation; it is conducive to the formation of harmonious, friendly, normal, and healthy interpersonal relationships; it is conducive to improving the degree of social civilization and promoting the development of society. The vulgar relationship is to commercialize the interpersonal communication, making people's prosperity and short -sightedness. The entire society is full of macroex, and individuals are full of private sacs, while the interests of the country and the public are damaged.
    1. Briefly describe public relations and research content.
    Answer: The research content of public relations includes nine aspects:
    (1) The concept, category and nature of public relations (explain "what is public relations");
    ( 2) The history of public relations and the history of development (explain "the ins and outs of public relations");
    (3) The subject of public relations and their functions (explain "Who is engaged in public relations? What do you do?"); ; ; ; ; R n (4) Public object analysis (explain "who carried out public relations activities");
    (5) The management process of public relations (explaining "how to do public relations");
    (6) Public public The medium of relationships and its application methods (explain "what means and methods for public relations to perform");
    (7) Public relations practice activities (explanation: What do public relations work do ");
    (8) Professional ethics and laws of public relations;
    (9) The national conditions and characteristics of public relations in China's application and research in China.
    . Contact China's reform and opening up and the development of the socialist market economy Learn the practical significance of public relations.
    Answer: The practical significance of learning public relations can be recognized from the following five aspects:
    (1) Adapting to the need for opening up. The dual communication of the world, especially in the context of today's global economic integration, must understand the world on the one hand, and spread to the world on the one hand; opening up to the outside world to make the problem of image management increasingly prominent, and it is necessary to establish a sense of public relations and strengthen public relations management; Opening to the outside world needs to work in accordance with international practice, especially in China to join the World Trade Organization (WTO). Study and use public relations is conducive to improving and standardized organizations. The development of horizontal connection has made the social relationships of the organization increasingly complicated, bringing new changes to the status of the organization's relationship (social relationships and public opinion) and behavioral methods. R n (3) The needs of the development of the market economy. The market economy brings a large -scale division of work and cooperation and fierce and market competition. Corporate organizations need to use public relations to expand their cooperative relationships, strengthen competitiveness, establish organizations and their it The popularity of the product, the reputation, and the promotion of economic benefits and social benefits.
    (4) the needs of modern information communication technology and the development of communication methods have promoted changes in the concept of social exchanges and exchanges. The development of public communication has made the role of public opinion increasingly enhanced, so that the problems of organizational image management are increasingly prominent. It is necessary to use public relations methods to understand public opinion, guide public opinion, and improve the survival and development environment of the organization.
    (5) Adapt to adaptation The needs of social stability. China's reform and opening up and the development of the market economy require a political situation of stability and solidarity. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the public relations work of society, strengthen the two -way communication between the government and the public Leaders' understanding, understanding, trust, and cooperation to form a harmonious social atmosphere.
    . The connection and differences between public relations and interpersonal relationships are described, and please give an example.
    : Public relationships and interpersonal relationships are two concepts that are both connected and different. Public relations refer to the communication and communication between the organization and the public. Interpersonal relationships refer to various social relations formed by individuals in social practice.
    If public relationships and interpersonal relationships: (1) From the perspective of work content, public relations include many interpersonal relationships. (2) From the perspective of working methods, public relations work needs to use interpersonal communication methods, and public relations personnel are required to have better interpersonal relationships. Good personal relationships help build good public relations.
    The differences between public relationships and interpersonal relationships: (1) The main body of public relations is the organization, the subject of interpersonal relationship is individual; 3) Public relations are the management functions of the organization, and interpersonal relationships are personal communication skills; (4) Public relations emphasize the use of mass communication, and interpersonal relationships are limited to interpersonal communication. (Example explanation)
    . Why does social and historical conditions produced and developed in combination with public relations explain why there is only modern public relations in ancient China?
    : Public relations occur in the United States. It was an inevitable product under the comprehensive effect of cultural, political, economic and technical conditions at that time. First, in terms of cultural conditions, the transformation from "rational" to "human nature" has been experienced. Respecting humanity, respect for personal feelings and dignity, humanistic, open culture is the soil where public relations can breed and grow. Second, as far as political conditions are concerned, democratic politics has replaced authoritarian politics. Although there are great historical limitations for capitalist political democracy, it has promoted the democratization of political life, creating an important condition for the generation and development of public relations. Third, in terms of economic conditions, the market economy has replaced the natural economy, and the changes in economic activity methods will inevitably bring the development of public relations and practice. This is the basic condition for public relations to produce and develop. Finally, in terms of technical conditions, Volkswagen spreads beyond individual communication. With the development of science and the rapid and widespread development of various mass media, the emergence of "Earth Village" provides possibilities for people's large -scale exchanges, and provides necessary technologies and methods for public relations. It is precisely because of the development of human culture at the beginning of this century, the deepening of democratic politics, the development of the market economy and the increasing popularity of popular communication technologies, and the breeding and promotion of the popularization and improvement of the popularity of mass communication.
    The on the instead of ancient Chinese society. The significance and value of individual life before 1840 were not valued by people; Culture and "humanized management methods" have no soil in China. Some are just "Grand God (heaven)". The concepts of "Three Outlines and Five Changs" and "Three Consultation". Authoritative politics is a major feature of a feudal society in China. The "people" of the feudal society in China is very different from the wave of democracy in modern times. In the past natural and economic society of capitalism, its production organization method is based on one household as the basic unit, one village and one countryside as the boundaries of the activity. The social connection is actually a blood, popularity, and geographical relationship with family villages as a fulcrum. Essence This narrow, fixed, and closed economic society, backward economic activities can only produce backward communication and communication methods.

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