After the DeFi Summer of 2020, the development of blockchain has made many people call it "left behind". In recent years, many new things have emerged. For both the old and the new people who are rooted in the industry, they need to keep learning to keep up with the pace. Take a look back at this rapidly evolving field!
01 block chain
Blockchain: Cryptographic-based trusted information storage and processing technology.
PoW: Proof of Work, solving a hash problem of SHA256 under certain difficult conditions.
Smart Contract: A pre-agreed Contract or program that runs on the blockchain.
Turing complete: A machine or device that can be used to simulate the functions of a Turing machine (the prototype of the modern general-purpose computer), which is equivalent in computability.
Node: a computer with software that can process blockchain transactions.
Block Explorer: Block Explorer is an online tool used to view all transactions (past and current) and wallet balance data on the blockchain.
Mnemonic: mnemonic is another form of plaintext private key, which was first proposed by BIP39, and its purpose is to help users remember complex private key (64-bit hash value). Mnemonic words are generally composed of 12, 15, 18 and 21 words, which are taken from a fixed thesaurus and generated in a certain order according to a certain algorithm.
Sybil Attack: A few nodes pretend to be a large number of nodes by forging or stealing identities, and then destroy the distributed system system.
Block header: Stores the block header information, including the PreHash of the previous block, the Hash of the block body, and a TimeStamp.
Digital signature: On the premise of not disclosing the private key, to prove the ownership of the private key, the sender uses the private key to encrypt the specific text content by algorithm, and the receiver uses the public key of the sender to decrypt it. If it can be restored, it can be confirmed as the correct sender, and the encrypted content is a digital signature.
Mempool: the space where the transaction records are temporarily stored before the transaction is packaged. The transactions in the memory pool are generally sorted by the commission price, and the transactions with higher price are packaged first.
Multi-signature wallet: A wallet that allows more than two users to co-sign a single transaction. It is a co-managed wallet type. For example, the common 2/3 signature refers to a wallet address generated by three private keys. As long as two people sign and agree to a transaction, the transaction can be completed on the chain.
Uncle Block: In the Bitcoin protocol, the longest chain is considered absolutely correct. If a block is not part of the longest chain, it is called an "orphan block." Ethereum does not consider an orphan block worthless, but instead rewards miners who find it, which in Ethereum is called a "tertiary block."
Sidechains: A sidechain is a blockchain independent of the main chain and connected to the main chain through a bidirectional bridge. The sidechain protocol is a protocol that enables the value transfer of currency between two blockchains, which is a way of cross-chain.
Layer2: Layer2 is an umbrella term for a series of off-chain extensibility solutions. The Layer2 platform and protocols process data in a way that reduces the burden on the base layer (root chain) and enhances the scalability of the entire blockchain network by shifting part of the data processing of the backbone onto Layer2.
02DeFi/Web3/ Metaverse /GameFi
Decentralized autonomous organizations (DAOs) : Decentralized autonomous organizations are decentralized organizations that operate without any human intervention, giving all forms of control to smart contracts with immutable rules.
Decentralized application DApp: A decentralized application is an open source application that runs automatically, stores its data on a blockchain, is incentivized in the form of a cryptographic token, and operates with a protocol that shows proof of value.
Ethereum Virtual Machine EVM: The Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) is a Turing-complete virtual machine that allows anyone to execute arbitrary EVM bytecode. Each Ethereum node runs on EVM to maintain consistency across the block chain, and through EVM, one can deploy and execute smart contracts on the blockchain.
Prophecy machine: The function of prophecy machine is to write the external information into the blockchain and complete the data exchange between the blockchain and the real world. It allows determined smart contracts to react to the uncertain external world, is the only way for smart contracts to interact with external data, and is the interface between blockchain and the real world for data interaction.
Testnet: A test blockchain used by developers to prevent changes to assets on the main chain.
POAP: Certificate of Attendance agreement; An NFT used to verify attendance at a particular event.
Decentralized Exchange DEX: An exchange deployed on a blockchain using smart contract codes. Decentralized exchanges consist of smart contracts that allow users to log in with their wallets and freely trade and exchange assets.
Liquidity mining/yield Farming: People deposit (or "pledge") a cryptocurrency or token on a DEX or dApp in order to receive the corresponding token reward.
Non-homogeneous token NFTS: block chain tokens with unique attributes, integer number, and non-divisible. Each NFT has unique attributes, such as token number, metadata picture, etc. They are often used to buy and sell unique artworks and collectibles.
Total Lock-up TVL: TVL represents the total lock-up value, the total amount of funds involved in DeFi by a single DEX, dApp or entire ecosystem, also known as the total lock-up Value (TLV).
Initial DEX Offering IDO: IDO refers to the first token offering and sale on the decentralized exchange DEX. IDO is freely and publicly available and does not require a license.
Dex aggregator: Dex aggregators find the most cost-effective trading routes by pooling the liquidity of different DeXes. By routing a single trade across multiple liquidity pools, traders making large transactions can save on GAS costs and minimize the cost of low liquidity affecting prices.
APY/APR: APR stands for Annual Percentage Rate. It's the real annual rate of return, regardless of the effect of compounding, and it measures the interest you charge to borrow money. APY stands for Annual Percentage Yield. It's the real annual rate of return, taking into account the effect of compound interest, and APY is a measure of the interest you earn when you save.
Pledge/collateral: A pledge is an asset locked in a smart contract, often used to borrow other assets. For example, in Compound, users can pledge ETH, lend USDT and other currencies, and the pledged ETH is called pledge.
Cross-chain: Cross-chain refers to the ability of two blockchains to interoperate with each other. Through cross-chain, users can transfer assets on chain A to chain B, thus realizing the circulation of assets.
Play-to-earn: Also known as P2E, a model that entices users to Play games and Earn additional real money through cleverly designed financial incentives.